Minimal residual disease (MRD) testing tracks cancer cells in patients with blood cancers.

MRD refers to the small number of cancer cells that remain in the body during or after treatment.¹-⁴

MRD is also called measurable residual disease.

Measuring MRD allows physicians and patients to know if cancer cells are present—and how many. This knowledge can affect patient care.5-9

Monitoring residual disease is useful in evaluating patient prognosis and assessing response to treatment in a variety of blood cancers, such as:

  • (ALL) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia ¹⁰¹²
  • (AML) Acute myeloid leukemia ⁸,¹²
  • (CLL) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia ¹⁴¹⁶
  • (CML) Chronic myeloid leukemia ⁷,¹⁷
  • (MM) Multiple myeloma ¹⁸²⁰
  • (NHL) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma ⁹,²¹,²²
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  11. Ribera J-M, Oriol A, Morgades M, et al. Treatment of high-risk Philadelphia chromosome– negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and adults according to early cytologic response and minimal residual disease after consolidation assessed by flow cytometry: Final results of the PETHEMA ALL-AR-03 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(15):1595-1604, appendix.
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  13. Voso MT, Ottone T, Lavorgna S, et al., MRD in AML: The Role of New Techniques. Frontiers in Oncology. 2019;(9):655.
  14. Böttcher S, Ritgen M, Fischer K, et al. Minimal residual disease quantification is an independent predictor of progression-free and overall survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A multivariate analysis from the randomized GCLLSG CLL8 trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(9):980-988.8.
  15. Kwok M, Rawstron AC, Varghese A, et al. Minimal residual disease is an independent predictor for 10-year survival in CLL.Blood.2016;128(24):2770-2773.
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  19. Mateos M-V, Dimopoulos MA, Cavo M, et al; for the ALCYONE Trial Investigators. Daratumumab plus bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone for untreated myeloma.N Engl J Med.2018;378(6):518-528.
  20. Korde N, Roschewski M, Zingone A, et al. Treatment with carfilzomib-lenalidomidedexamethasone with lenalidomide extension in patients with smoldering or newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.JAMA Oncol.2015;1(6):746-754.21.
  21. Armand P, Oki Y, Neuberg DS, et al. Detection of circulating tumour DNA in patients with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.Br J Haematol.2013;163(1):123-144.
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